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Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a cardiac chronic medical condition where there is elevation in the systemic arterial blood pressure. This means that the heart has to work harder than normal to pump blood throughout the body. Systolic and diastolic measurements are the two measurements involved with blood pressure. The blood pressure that is considered normal is 120/80 mm/Hg.


Systolic blood pressure is the first figure; this is pressure in the arteries when the heart is contracting. Diastolic blood pressure is the second figure, which is the pressure in the arteries between the heartbeats. Anything above 140/90 mm/Hg is considered high blood pressure. The opposite of hypotension is hypertension. Hypertension is classified as either primary or secondary. Roughly 90-95% of cases are labeled “primary hypertension,” which really means that there is no obvious medical cause for high blood pressure. The 5-10% cases remaining are caused by conditions that affect the heart, kidneys, arteries, or endocrine system.


One of the risk factors for stroke, heart failure, arterial aneurysm and myocardial infarction is persistent hypertension, which is a leading cause of chronic kidney failure. A shorten life expectancy can come from moderate elevation of the arterial blood pressure. Other things such as dietary and lifestyle changes can improve blood pressure control as well as decrease the risk of other associated health complications. There are patients who will need drug treatment because lifestyle changes might be ineffective.

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